Frontline Article from Frontline Law Firm


Frontline Article from Frontline Law Firm

The LAW FIRM OF DAYREL SEWELL, PLLC is pleased to announce that Messrs. Sewell’s and Ng’s recent, featured publication, “A ‘Generic’ Victory for Specific Fact-Findings”, appears in this week’s IPFrontline newsletter (see hyperlink below).

IPFrontline is a web magazine about intellectual property. The IPFrontline electronic newsletter lands in more than 15,000 e-mail boxes every week, ensuring timely delivery of top stories and articles appearing in IPFrontline online.

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A ‘Generic’ Victory for Specific Fact-Findings

patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, intellectual property, unfair competition



Myriad Back in Court on Patent Subject Matter Eligibility


On June 13, 2013, the Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision holding that “genes and the information they encode are not patent eligible simply because they have been isolated from the surrounding genetic material.” See Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics Corp. (AMP), 133 S. Ct. 2107, 2120 (2013). Attorney Sewell’s publication entitled “Unanimous U.S. Supreme Court and Angelina Jolie: BRCA1 & BRCA2 Patentability” is widely disseminated, well-received by his peers, and sparks considerable commentary.


Background

In somewhat of a twist, the Supreme Court’s decision against the patentability of isolated DNA prompted more—not less—litigation by Myriad regarding gene patents. Between 1997 and 2013, Myriad’s revenue from its BRACAnalysis test steadily increased, and totals more than $2 billion. BRACAnalysis is a genetic test that confirms the presence of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, responsible for the majority of breast and ovarian cancers. Myriad earned that revenue by carefully guarding its patent rights and preventing others from providing screening tests for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. From the mid-1990s, until the Supreme Court’s AMP decision, Myriad was the lone provider of full-sequence BRCA1 and BRCA2 tests in the United States. Within days of the Supreme Court’s AMP decision, Defendant Ambry Genetics Corporation announced plans to sell tests less expensive than Myriad’s to screen BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Ambry Genetics Corporation is a clinical diagnostic and genomic services company in Aliso Viejo, California. Defendant now offers a menu of at least six tests that include screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2: a combined BRCA1/BRCA2 test, BRCAPlus, BreastNext, PancNext, Ova Next, and CancerNext. Defendant’s BRCA1/BRCA2 test is available for $2,200—substantially less than the price for comparable testing offered by Myriad.

Soon after Defendant Ambry made its announcement, Myriad filed a complaint in the District Court of Utah alleging that Ambry’s genetic testing infringes several of Myriad’s patents. Myriad also moved for a preliminary injunction to enjoin Defendant Ambry from sales or offers to sell “genetic tests including a BRCA1 or BRCA2 panel”. Ambry opposed the motion, alleging that the claims were invalid under 35 U.S.C. § 101 et seq. The district court divided the Myriad gene patent claims at issue into the Primer Claims and the Method Claims.

On March 20, 2014, the Utah District Court held that Plaintiffs are not entitled to a preliminary injunction because “although Plaintiffs have shown they are likely to be irreparably harmed if an injunction does not issue, Defendant has raised substantial questions concerning whether any of the patent claims at issue in Plaintiffs’ Motion are directed toward patent eligible subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101”. Myriad then appealed to the Federal Circuit the denial of its motion for a preliminary injunction.

U.S. Federal Circuit Court of Appeals

On October 6, 2014, Chief Judge Prost and Judges Dyk and Clevenger of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit heard oral argument in the interlocutory appeal of the Utah district court’s denial of Myriad’s motion for preliminary injunction against Ambry Genetics. In re BRCA1- and BRCA2- Based Hereditary Cancer Test Patent Litigation, Case Nos. 14-1361, -1366. The two main issues that dominated the argument are: 1) the correct implementation of the test for patent eligibility; and 2) the application of this test to probes and primers. The impact on the biotechnology industry was also discussed.

Jonathan E. Singer, counsel for Myriad, began by arguing that both the Federal Circuit and the Supreme Court had previously acknowledged that Myriad was entitled to patent some applications of their newly-discovered gene sequence and tools designed specifically to utilize that sequence. Myriad argues that primer pairs are patent subject matter eligible under 35 U.S.C § 101 because the pairs are structurally and functionally different than a single fragment of DNA. Counsel for Myriad also argued that, as a whole, the method of screening for alterations on the BRCA genes involves steps of the method claims, when considered together, effect an improvement in a technical field – by using Myriad’s probes and primers that Myriad invented.

With respect to the primer claims, Ambry argues that these claims are patent-ineligible because, in addition to reciting patent-ineligible products of nature, the claims fail under Alice because they are a generic component used to amplify a person’s gene sequence to access the sequence information for the patent-ineligible sequence comparison. As for the method claims, Ambry argues that under Alice, “the combination of unpatentable subject matter and a generic physical application is no more patent eligible than a claim reciting only the unpatentable subject matter.” See Ambry Supplemental Brief at page 3.

Conclusion

What is clear from the district and appellate court arguments is that it does not appear likely that Myriad will be successful in its attempts to preliminarily enjoin Ambry. Additionally, the biotechnology industry is looking towards the Federal Circuit for guidance on the correct implementation of patent subject matter eligibility under Myriad, Mayo, and Alice.

patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, intellectual property, unfair competition



Intellectual property (patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secret) is all around us and is valuable. The things that we use, watch, and buy are items that were thought of and then put into practice. Attorneys at the New York LAW FIRM OF DAYREL SEWELL, PLLC protect your intellectual property, so that you can maximize value. The majority of our attorneys possesses scientific training and is well-experienced in the litigation and prosecution aspects of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, licensing, unfair competition, and more. Our passion and commitment is unmatched and is one of several aspects that set us apart from our peers. We care. As a result, our clients receive legal expertise with individualized attention by attorneys who are invested in the outcome of your matters. Our clients realize the value that this law firm delivers and are committed to a long-term, rewarding, attorney-client relationship.



Patent Troll Paying the Toll


In an exemplary ruling, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York has ordered the so-called patent troll, Lumen View Technology, LLC (“Lumen”), to pay opposing party FindTheBest.com’s legal fees and other expenses under the fee-shifting provision of 35 U.S.C. § 285. See Lumen View Technology, LLC v. FindTheBest.com, Inc., 1:13-cv-3599 (DLC) (SDNY 2014).


Lumen filed suit against FindTheBest in May 2013 alleging FindTheBest infringed on a computer-implemented method patent that facilitated bilateral and multilateral decision-making. Lumen also filed more than twenty other similar patent infringement claims against various other technology companies during 2012 and 2013. FindTheBest quickly noticed the Lumen claim was a sham due to the fact that FindTheBest technology did not use a bilateral or multilateral decision-making process. The Southern District found Lumen’s suit to be without merit and dismissed the case in November 2013.


After the dismissal, FindTheBest petitioned the court to find Lumen’s suit one of an “exceptional case” under Section 285 and the recent Supreme Court ruling in Octane Fitness, LLC v. Icon Health & Fitness, Inc., 134 S. Ct. 1749 (2014).


In the April 2014 unanimous decision penned by Justice Sotomayor, the Supreme Court ruled that an “exceptional case” under § 285 is one that stands out from others with respect to a party’s litigating position, considering the law and the facts of the case, or the unreasonable manner in which the case was litigated. See Octane Fitness, LLC, 134 S. Ct. at 1756.


The Court found the previous standard in Brooks Furniture Manufactuirng, Inc. v. Dutailier Int’l, Inc., 393 F. 3d 1378 (2005), to be overly restrictive and one that hampered the statutory grant of discretion given to the courts under Section 285. Section 285 imposes only one constraint on a district court’s discretion to award fees, one of “exceptional” cases. In Brooks, a case could only be deemed exceptional when there was material inappropriate conduct, or when parties brought cases in subjective bad faith and were objectively baseless. The Court found this framework to be inconsistent with the text of Section 285.


In step with the Supreme Court’s Octane decision, the Southern District found Lumen’s patent infringement suit to fall under the “exceptional case” standard. As such, the Southern District of New York granted FindTheBest’s motion and found the suit to be a “prototypical exceptional case” shifting payment of FindTheBest’s case fees to Lumen.


patent, patent search, patent attorney, intellectual property, attorney fees, patent infringement, Supreme Courtattorney fees, toll, litigation



Continuing Legal Education, Networking, and Refreshments


The LAW FIRM OF DAYREL SEWELL, PLLC is pleased to announce that Dayrel will be co-presenting a Continuing Legal Education (CLE) course called “Intellectual Property Fundamentals: What Every Attorney Needs to Know” on Monday, May 19, 2014 at the Brooklyn Bar Association.


Refreshments and networking will immediately follow the CLE presentation. The attached flyer contains further course and registration information. You are encouraged to attend this fun and informative event. We look forward to seeing you!


Intellectual Property Fundamentals What Every Attorney Needs to Know




Patent Assertion Entity Settles with Attorney General and Sues the Federal Trade Commission


On January 14, 2014, the Office of the New York State Attorney General (OAG) made a significant contribution in combating the ignominious patent troll.

Attorney General Eric Schneiderman announced that MPHJ Technology Investments, LLC (MPHJ), a so-called “patent troll”, entered into an Assurance of Discontinuance (or settlement) with the OAG stemming from the OAG’s June 2013 investigation of potentially deceptive statements, and other abusive conduct, by MPHJ relating to its patent licensing program which targeted New York businesses as potential infringers of its patents. See Assurance No. 14-015. The Attorney General’s investigation focused on MPHJ’s use of deceptive and abusive tactics when it contacted hundreds of small and medium-sized New York businesses in an effort to strong-arm them into paying MPHJ for patent licenses of dubious value.

Thankfully, the State of New York is taking corrective measures against patent troll abusive tactics. The settlement establishes guidelines for entities who exemplify patent troll behavior. Amongst other things, the settlement contains guidelines for future patent assertion conduct that, in part, include:

  1. good faith basis for asserting patents after conducting reasonable diligence;
  2. providing material information necessary for an accused infringer to evaluate a claim;
  3. material information necessary to evaluate a reasonable royalty rate;
  4. no misleading statements about a license fee;
  5. transparency of ownership of the patent holder and financial interest;
  6. additional safeguards against deceptive patent assertion conduct; and,
  7. material information necessary to evaluate the value of a proposed license


It is important to note that the guidelines in the OAG’s settlement are minimum standards and are not a safe harbor. OAG states that “[t]he requirements imposed on MPHJ in the settlement should be viewed by other patent trolls as the minimum standards that such entities seeking to contact New York businesses must follow to avoid liability for unlawful deceptive practices.”

MPHJ v. FTC

In addition to falling squarely within the crosshairs of the New York, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Vermont Attorney Generals, MPHJ is one of the first patent trolls to ostensibly catch the consumer protection watchful eye of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Prior to the FTC filing its draft complaint, MPHJ filed its own preemptive complaint on January 13, 2014 in the Western District of Texas against the FTC and its commissioners and directors. See MPHJ Technology Investments v. FTC et al.; case no. 6:14-cv-00011-WSS. As a bit of background, the FTC first sent a subpoena to MPHJ in July 2013, “seeking certain information regarding MPHJ’s patent-related correspondence and enforcement activity” prior to likely seeking a consent judgment or pursuing FTC Act litigation barring deceptive trade practices. FTC also served a subpoena on Farney Daniels, the law firm retained by MPHJ to help with its enforcement campaign.

MPHJ contends that its lawsuit against the FTC arises out of the “unlawful interference and threats by the FTC Defendants against MPHJ and its counsel directed at stopping or impeding the lawful, proper, and constitutionally protected efforts by MPHJ to identify and seek redress for infringement of its U.S. patents.”

To date, the FTC has not filed its reply to MPHJ’s Complaint. Notwithstanding, intellectual property enthusiasts and many interested others anxiously await greater, appropriate patent reform.

The Ignominious Patent Troll by Dayrel S. Sewell



Chairman Bar Association Highlight


Chairman Bar Association Highlight

The LAW FIRM OF DAYREL SEWELL, PLLC is pleased to announce that Mr. Sewell’s recent, featured publication, The Ignominious Patent Troll, also prominently appears in the year-end publication of the Brooklyn Barrister.


The Brooklyn Barrister is the official publication of the Brooklyn Bar Association. Dayrel looks forward to continuing his leadership roles as Chair of the Brooklyn Bar Association Intellectual Property Committee and Vice-Chair of the Brooklyn Bar Association Real Property Committee.



Brooklyn Bridge

Brooklyn Bridge


Brooklyn Bar Association

Brooklyn Bar Association



Acclaimed Litigator Featured on the Cover


Acclaimed Litigator Featured on the Cover

The LAW FIRM OF DAYREL SEWELL, PLLC is pleased to announce that Mr. Sewell’s article, “The Ignominious Patent Troll”, found below is the featured publication on the cover of the current issue of Intellectual Property Today.


You are encouraged to subscribe to the firm’s complimentary blog and press release subscription services. We look forward to your comment.

The Ignominious Patent Troll